(South of the River), an agricultural province, in the
middle-lower Huanghe River, valley gets its name from
the greater part of the province's lying south of the
Huanghe River. One of the earliest developed regions in
the country, it was a political and cultural center in
ancient China. In the 'remote past, China was divided
into nine geographical regions, and Henan was called the
"Central Region" or "Central Plain"
because it was situated in the middle of the nine regions.
Henan covers an area of more than 160,000 square kilometers.
It is one of the most densely populated provinces with
a population of 72.85 million, of which 87.7 per cent
live in the rural areas and 12.3 per cent in the cities.
Anyang -- Heart of China's Beginnings
Kaifeng -- Ancient Capital
Luoyang -- City of Peonies
-- Green City
terrain slopes from west to east. It is bisected from
north to south by the Beijing- Guangzhou Railway, which
is flanked on the west by hills and mountains and on the
east by a vast plain. On its northwestern border is the
Taihang range. The western mountain area includes the
eastern extensions of the Qinling range--the Yaoshan,
Xionger, Waifang and Funiu mountains. Extending east from
the Waifang Mountains is Songshan, one of the country's
five sacred mountains, whose main peak towers 1,440 meters
above sea level. The low, flat Nanyang Basin in the southwest
has always been a natural passage between north and south.
On the southern border is the Tongbai range, which stretches
east to adjoin the Dabie Mountains. The wide plain east
of the Beijing-Guangzhou Railway is part of the North.
China Plain and the principal farming area of the province.
The Huanghe River, which has burst over its dykes and
changed its course many times, has left broken dykes and
sand dunes in the north of the plain. Of the province's
total area, mountains make up 26 per cent, hills 18 per
cent and plains 56 per cent.
Huanghe and Huaihe rivers are Henan's main waterways.
The Huanghe River runs through the northern part of Henan
from west to east for 700 kilometers. It is narrow and
flows swiftly west of Mengjin, where a key water conservancy
project has been built over the Sanmenxia Gorge. East
of Mengjin it flows slowly across a vast expanse of flatland,
where its silt-choked bed rises higher than its banks.
The Huaihe River flows through southern Henan from west
to east for 300 kilometers, draining an area 43 per cent
of its total catchment area.
has a continental climate of the north temperate zone,
with hot, rainy summers, dry, inclement winters and windy
springs. It has a mean annum temperature of 13ºC-15ºC,
increasing from north to south, an annual frost-free period
of 6-8 months, and a mean annual precipitation of 600-900
mm., also increasing from north to south.