on the Mongolian People's Republic in the north, Inner
Mongolia is an oblong strip extending from northeast to
southwest with an area of 1.2 million square kilometers,
or one-eighth of the country's total. Its population of
18.77 million includes 2.09 million Mongolians, 16 million
Hans and the rest Huis, Manchus, Daurs and Ewenkis. About
23 per cent of the population in Inner Mongolia live in
urban areas and 77 per cent in rural areas.
Mongolia belonged to parts of Rehe, Qahar and Suiyuan
provinces in 1928. On May 1, 1947, an autonomous region
was set up in the eastern part of present-day Inner Mongolia
liberated by the People's Liberation Army. After nationwide
Liberation in 1949, parts of Suiyuan, Rehe, Qahar, Ningxia
and Gansu where Mongolians lived in compact communities
were incorporated into the autonomous region. In 1969,
under the influence of the Lin Biao and Jiang Qing counter-revolutionary
cliques, the Juud, Jiren and Hulunboir leagues in the
east were incorporated into Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang
provinces and the regions west of the Bayannur League
into Gansu and Ningxia provinces. The July 1979 decision
by the State Council to return those parts to the jurisdiction
of Inner Mongolia was well received there by the people
of the various nationalities.
Diamond Throne Dagoba
Genghis Khan's Mausoleum
Thousand Avatamsakasutras Pagoda (Wanbuhuayanjingta)
The Grand Mosque
Mongolia forms the greater part of the Inner Mongolia
Plateau, with the Greater Hinggan and Yinshan ranges stretching
from northeast to southwest. It may be divided into six
zones according to its terrain. 1) The northeastern part
is made up of the Greater Hinggan range, with an elevation
of 1,000-2,000 meters and dense forests. 2) The Hulunboir
Plateau west of the Greater Hinggan range, about 1,000
meters above sea level, has vast areas of grassland well
suited for grazing. 3) The Northern Inner Mongolia Plateau,
also 1,000 meters above sea level, comprises vast excellent
natural pasturelands. There are many deserts on the plateau
especially in its west. 4) The Songliao Plain east of
the Greater Hinggan range adjoins the Northeast plain.
5) The Hetao Plain, known as the "granary along the
Great Wall", between the Yinshan Mountains and the
Huangbe River is crisscrossed with streams and fields.
6) The Ordos Plateau stands south of the Huanghe at a
height of 1,200 meters. Here there are the Hobq and Muus
deserts and numerous salt and alkali lakes.
Mongolia, with a temperate continental monsoonal climate,
has a cold, long winter with frequent blizzards and a
warm, short summer. Except for the relatively humid Greater
Hinggan Mountain Area, the greater' part of Inner Mongolia
is, from west to east, arid, semi-arid and semi-humid.
trunk rail lines are the Beijing-Baotou, Baotou-Lanzhou,
Jining-Erenhot and Harbin. Manzhouli railways. Horse-carts
and camels remain an important means of transportation
but practically all the banners, counties and communes
are accessible by highways. The section of the Huanghe
in Inner Mongolia is navigable.