in tile middle reaches of the Yellow River in the eastern
part of northwest China is one of the cradles of the Chinese
nation where 13 dynasties made their national capital.
Yanan and some of the other places in northern Shaanxi
were the seat of the Central Committee of the Chinese
Communist Party from October 1935 to 1948. Shaanxi has
an area of more than 190,000 square kilometers and a population
of 28.31 million, of which 18.4 per cent live in the cities
and 81.6 per cent in the rural areas. Most of Shaanxi's
population lives in the Weihe Plain and the Hanshui Valleyland.
Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor
Xi'an -- 'Cradle of Chinese Civilization'
Yan'an -- Symbol of the Chinese
Silk Road Starts in the Old Capitals of Luoyang and Xian (then called Chang'an)
has a varied terrain. In the north are plateaus, in the
middle plains and in the south mountain areas. 1) The
Northern Shaanxi Plateau is the middle part of the Loess
Plateau, comprising the whole of northern Shaanxi. Except
for scattered stony and rocky mountains, most of it is
covered with a deep layer of loess. Here vegetation is
sparse and erosion over the centuries has brought about
a varied loess land formation. 2) The Guanzhong Plain,
also known as the Weihe Plain or the Guanzhong Basin,
is 30-80 km. by 300 km. and crossed by the Weihe and its
tributaries, the Jinghe and Beiluo rivers. With fertile
soil, abundant farm produce, large population and convenient
communications, the area is one of the country's important
industrial-agricultural centers. 3) The Southern Shaanxi
Mountain Area, also known as the Qinba Mountain Area,
includes the Qinling and Daba ranges and the Hanshui Valleyland
between them. Rising more than 2,000 meters above sea
level, the Qinling range is the major watershed of the
Yellow and Yangtze river valleys and an important geographical
divide between northern and southern China. Mount Taibai,
its main peak, is 3,767 meters in elevation, and Huashan
Mountain in the eastern rim is one of the country's five
sacred mountains. The Daba range on the Shaanxi-Sichuan
border is the boundary range between the Hanzhong and
Sichuan basins. The Hanshui Valleyland is interspersed
with canyons and basins, of which the Hanzhong Basin is
a known farming area. The Huanghe creates numerous gorges
as it flows along between Shaanxi and Shanxi. Its tributaries,
the Wuding, Yanhe, Luohe, Jinghe and Weihe rivers, flow
past the Loess Plateau and carry large quantities of mud
and silt with them as they empty into the Yellow River.
The Hanshui River, the longest tributary of the Yangtze
River, rises in the southwest, flows past the Qinba Mountain
Area then eastward to Hubei where it merges with the Yangtze.
has a continental monsoonal climate, with great difference
between the areas north and south of the Qinling range.
It has a mean annual temperature of 5.9ºC-15.7ºC,
increasing from north to south, and a mean annual precipitation
less in the north than in the south: 340-600 mm. in northern
Shaanxi, 570-700 mm. in the Guanzhong Plain and 800-1,210
mm. in southern Shaanxi.
has 13 main and feeder railways. The Xi'an Railway Station
has 12 marshalling yards. It is a transportation hub in
the northwestern region linking with the northwest, southwest,
the east, and the north of China. The new Eurasian Continental
Bridge from China's Lianyungang to the Netherlands' Rotterdam
passes through the province. A new railway running north
and south is under construction and will solve the transportation
bottleneck in northern and southern Shaanxi.
The province is constructing a highway transportation
network comprised of nine national highways with Xi'an
at the core. The province has a total expressway length
of 385 kilometers, and the highways now reach 95 percent
of the villages.
The Xianyang Airport is the largest air hub in northwest
China, and the expansion of the airport has been started.
The province has opened 119 domestic and international
air routes and has flights to 51 cities in China.